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Intro and History

Tuscany is an Italian region with about 3.8 million inhabitants. It is located at the height of the center of Italy and its capital is Florence which is the main city from a historical and artistic point of view, as well as the most populous in the region with almost 400.000 inhabitants. The other provincial capitals are: Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Massa-Carrara, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato, Siena.

The name Tuscany was used by the Latins to describe a land inhabited by the Etruscans, it refers to the third century BC.

After that, it was conquered by the Romans and after an initial period of prosperity, there was an economic and cultural decline. After the succession of various dominations, the Lombards arrived in 569 and elevated it to a Duchy.

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Florence became the hub of the Italian Renaissance.

In the 15th century, the De Medici family came to power with Cosimo the Elder and reigned until 1737 with the last Grand Duke Gian Gastone.

In 1786 the death penalty and torture were abolished in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, this is in fact the first system in the world to legally abolish the death penalty.

There was also a Napoleonic interlude that went beyond the early 1800s where Napoleon brought the innovative idea of ​​”nation”, the idea was to revive with values ​​of freedom, independence, and creativity. The great Italians taken as a symbol were Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Galileo Galilei. In this way, Tuscany became one of the most important centers of this independence movement.

Curiosity: the Tuscan language is, after the Sardinian language, the closest to Latin.


The Tuscan territory is mainly hilly and 25% of the mountainous territory. Almost half of the territory is covered by woods with high hilly areas such as the Metalliferous Hills, the Chianti Mountains, and the areas near the coastal strip. There are mountain routes such as the passes and passes and the Accona desert of about 150 km².

The coastal part includes the plains of Versilia, Viareggio, and the last stretch of the Valdarno, as well as the Piana di Pisa and the Maremma, which we remember as the largest plain in the area. Inland, the main plain is the Valdarno. The Tuscan territory is divided into various zones according to the more or less high seismicity.


From a climactic point of view, Tuscany has different characteristics depending on the area.

Temperatures record the highest values ​​in the coastal area and tend to decrease as we proceed towards the hinterland. In the middle Valdarno and in the Val di Chiana the maximum summer values ​​are reached.

Food and beverages

Tuscany has the primacy in Europe as the first region to have approved a law prohibiting the cultivation and production of GMOs, genetically modified organisms.

The worldwide importance of Tuscan wines is undisputed, which includes 6 DOCGs:

  • Carmignano;
  • Brunello di Montalcino Chianti;
  • Morellino di Scansano (vintage 2007 onwards);
  • Vernaccia di San Gimignano;
  • Vino Nobile di Montepulciano;
  • and other 34 DOCs.

Curiosity: Another product of Tuscany famous all over the world is the Tuscan cigar, produced with tobacco leaves grown in the Val di Chiana and Valtiberina.

The breeding of predominantly indigenous cattle and pig breeds makes it possible to obtain very fine meats thanks above all to farming in the wild. We remember the Chianina, Maremma, Calvanina and Garfagnina breeds.


Thanks to its historical, cultural, and artistic heritage, the Tuscan region has a strong tourist vocation with over 49 million visitors a year. The cities of Florence, Pisa, and Siena bear witness to this. Municipalities such as Bibbona, Capoliveri, San Vincenzo, and Castiglione della Pescaia have an accommodation rate of over 200%, therefore the accommodation facilities host a double number of visitors compared to the resident population.

Foreign citizens residing in the Tuscan region are over 400.000.


In Tuscany, there are many foreign universities considering branch offices. The most present is certainly the Americans, followed by the Canadian ones concentrated above all in the city of Florence. Think of New York University, Syracuse University, Stanford University, present since 1960 in Florence, Harvard University with The Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, Georgetown University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Paris, as well as to cultural institutes, the most famous of which is certainly the Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz founded in 1897, now owned by the Max Planck Society.

Real estate market

In the Tuscany region, there are about 291.000 properties for sale, with an average request of € 2.500 per square meter. The figure of over 3.000 € / m² is recorded in the province of Florence. The apartment is the most requested type with over 170.000 listings, followed by independent houses with over 100.000 offers.